It can be annoying when MySQL imports your UTF8 database (which contains exotic characters other than those in English) in the default character set of latin1_swedish_ci, jeopardizing the text content. It is also annoying when phpMyAdmin does the same and when you forgot to set the collation to utf8_general_ci for the new database which is very probably going to store utf8 characters.

Let’s fix this once and for all.

Just locate and open the MySQL configuration file my.ini and find the section [mysqld]. Add the following directive:


Save to my.ini and restart MySQL demon. Now MySQL will use utf8 as the default character set when importing databases or creating new databases. The default collation of phpMyAdmin has also changed to utf8_general_ci.

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Free PHP Business Directory Script

by Yang Yang on September 29, 2010

Simple PHP Script is a website scripts arsenal for Kavoir readers. My plan is to write many simple yet useful website scripts and release them in SPS for you to download and use. Some of them will be commercial and some of them will be free. The first script is a business directory website script in PHP and MySQL that I’m releasing free here.

Homepage layout

free php directory script screenshot
For the back-end administration control panel, use the demo account to log in.

How to download?

If you are interested in obtaining a copy of the script and use it for your own website, please sign up with our email list by the form in the right sidebar or the one immediately after this post.

After you have subscribed to the mailing list, not only can you download the script free, but you will also be notified of more free PHP website script releases in future.

What are the features?

This business directory script has a handy multi-step installation module to help you deploy the script on your server. PHP 5 is required. For now, you have to install it at the root of a dedicated domain or subdomain such as or You cannot install it in sub-directories such as

It also comes with a user registration / contribution system and a full-fledged administration control panel. You can create and edit up to 2 tiers of categories. You and registered users can add business listings with business names, phone numbers, website URLs and postal addresses. You can choose to approve all the listings before they appear publicly or you can enable the users to instantly publish them on your site.

Paid inclusion is not available in this version yet. Nor is a usable template system. However these are already on my list of wanted features for this product.

Those who subscribes to Kavoir email list will receive all future upgrades for free. Just download the package again with the FreeCode that will be sent to your inbox after you have confirmed subscription.

Buy A Word Directory

Back a few years ago I also made this script: – the PHP link directory script that sells English words as links, $1 per letter. You can purchase a word and make it link back to your website. Feature the word on the homepage for an extra fee.

You can buy the script here:

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PHP: Get Human Readable Time from Seconds

by Yang Yang on September 29, 2010

Linux timestamp is a number of seconds from the Epoch of Linux, large number of seconds. When you are counting the time interval between 2 times or 2 dates, the result is usually in seconds as well. Understandably, it’s everything but user friendly to just present the number of seconds to the users, e.g. 153297 s since last visit.

To display the time interval in a human readable format instead of in seconds, you can use the following function:

function getHumanTime($s) {
	$m = $s / 60;
	$h = $s / 3600;
	$d = $s / 86400;
	if ($m > 1) {
		if ($h > 1) {
			if ($d > 1) {
				return (int)$d.' d';
			} else {
				return (int)$h.' h';
		} else {
			return (int)$m.' m';
	} else {
		return (int)$s.' s';

This is what I used for Usable Databases to display length of time since the user’s last visit to a certain page. d indicates day, h hour, m minute and s seconds. This function requires a number of seconds as input and convert it into human readable time periods such as x hours or x days.

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Regular Expression for Date and Time Strings

by Yang Yang on September 29, 2010

Often we need the users to enter a valid string of date or time in the form. But how do you validate the strings with regular expressions? In PHP, you can use these functions and regular expressions.

RegExp and function to validate against date string:

// Default: YYYY-MM-DD
function isDate($subject, $separator = '-') {
	return preg_match('@^\d{4}'.$separator.'(0[1-9]|1[0-2])'.$separator.'(0[1-9]|1[0-9]|2[0-9]|3[0-1])$@', $subject);

RegExp and function to validate against time string:

// Default: HH:MM:SS
function isTime($subject, $separator = ':') {
	return preg_match('@^(0[1-9]|1[0-9]|2[0-4])'.$separator.'(0[1-9]|[1-5][0-9])'.$separator.'(0[1-9]|[1-5][0-9])$@', $subject);

If you need to validate against a different format, just change the $separator.

Now that you have the functions to validate date and time, you can combine them to verify date time strings such as 2016-04-30 18:19:05:

function isDateTime($subject) {
	$subject_array = explode(' ', $subject);
	if (count($subject_array) == 2) {
		return isDate($subject_array[0]) && :isTime($subject_array[1]) || $subject == '0000-00-00 00:00:00';
	return false;

At Form Kid, these are functions I use for fields that need validation of the date and time.

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When I’m developing the online form creator that enables the users to create form fields that accept only certain type of numbers, I need to verify if a given string is a valid natural number such as 1, 2, 3, 4, …. I’m writing the code / functions in PHP but you can literally use the regular expression in other programming languages as well. I use the following function to distinguish strings if they are natural numbers or positive integers.

function isNaturalNumber($subject) {
	return preg_match('|^[1-9][0-9]*$|', $subject);

You can add for a leading plus sign as well:


Regular Expression for Negative Integers?

Negative integers are –1, –2, –3, …. Just add a minus sign before the regular expression for positive integers:


Regular Expression for Non-negative Integers?

That is, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, …. By a little help of the isNaturalNumber function, you can use this function to check if a string is a legal non-negative integer:

function isNonNegativeInteger($subject) {
	// @^(0|[1-9][0-9]*)$@
	if ($subject == '0' || isNaturalNumber($subject)) {
		return true;

Or if you insist on using a regular expression:

function isNonNegativeInteger($subject) {
	return preg_match('@^(0|[1-9][0-9]*)$@', $subject);

PHP functions to check if a string is a valid integer?

Just use the above functions in combination or the native is_integer() function of PHP.

function isInteger() {
	return isNegativeInteger($subject) || isNonNegativeInteger($subject);

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The strange thing is that the native empty() function of PHP treats a string of ‘0’ as empty:

$str = '0';
echo empty($str) ? 'empty' : 'non-empty';

And it will output ’empty’. Therefore if you need to examine if a string is truly an empty string with zero length, you have to use:

echo strlen($str) == 0 ? 'empty' : 'non-empty';

Or you can use this function:

function isNonEmpty($subject) {
	return !empty($subject) || is_numeric($subject);

Which checks if the input string $subject is a numeric value (which makes it non-empty) or if it’s non-empty with empty() function when it’s not a numeric value.

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Auto-generated content by user searches

by Yang Yang on September 29, 2010

A not-so-commonly employed content strategy is to automatically generate custom content by user searches. For example, if you’ve got a popular blog, there will be a lot of users searching for things they want to find on your blog. It’s an obvious sign that they want you to write about them. While you are recommended to keep an eye on what they are searching so as to provide content accordingly, you can also make the blog automatically generate search results pages by the searching terms.

I tried to find some WordPress plugins that do this for us but was unable to find any. Basically, the plugin would record all unique user search phrases and present them on a page as a list for the search engines to index the results pages with the custom page titles.

You should use the search term prominently in the page title and in the h1 tag. After the search engine has indexed the search results pages, you will have a lot of custom content pages AND best of all, they are exactly what users and potential visitors want to read. I have seen pretty exciting increase in searching traffic for my quotes site after I have implemented the strategy. The quotes search automatically generates a lot of custom pages by the searching phrase. What the user is searching is usually stuff that’s hard to come by in other sites or search engines so Google is pretty hungry in indexing these pages.

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I created a free online web form builder a while back and since it went well in search engine rankings, spammers and phishers found it and started to use it creating forms to collect email account usernames and passwords through phishing attempts. I’ve got to do something before my host closes down my site because of all the complaints and alerts from security department of the universities. They’ve got good reasons. I’m hosting all the phishing forms.

Phishers tend to use URL slugs that include words such as ‘admin’, ‘webmail’ or ‘account’ so that the form seems authoritative at first glance. After they have signed up, they will create forms with fields labeled ‘Password’ or something. So what I’m going to do is to list all such words as reserved words and prohibit the users from doing anything with them.

A function will be needed to examine a subject string against an array of reserved words that will be censored when users use them as input. Listed is a my function:

public static function isStringLegal($subjectString = '', $disallowedWords = array()) {
	$alphabetSubject = preg_replace('|[^a-zA-Z]+|', '', $subjectString);
	foreach ($disallowedWords as $disallowedWord) {
		if (stripos($alphabetSubject, $disallowedWord) !== false) {
			return false;
	return true;

The PHP function stripos() returns a numeric value if it finds $disallowedWord in $alphabetSubject, case-insensitive. If it fails to find anything, it returns false.

A sample disallowed words list:

$slugDisallowedWords = array(

The disallowed words list can only contain alphabet letters. If you need a phrase such as ‘no way’, you have to add it in the array as ‘noway’. This is to prevent illegal attempts to add any word or phrase in manners such as ‘a-d-m-i-n’ or ‘Pa_ss Word’. All the non-alphabet letters / characters are first gotten rid of and then the deprived string which contains only alphabet letters are checked against each word in the disallowed words list.

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Best renewal promo code for non .com domains at GoDaddy

by Yang Yang on September 26, 2010

Had a bunch of .info, .net and .org to be renewed yesterday and after searching for quite a while, I was unable to find any promo source code deals better than this one:


It places a 17% discount ($6.99 .info, $7.49 .org and .net) off your cart for domain renewals. I had 17 domains to be renewed yesterday and it saved me about $25. Just thought I’d share with you in case you are going to renew some names.

Good GoDaddy promo codes that are nicely discounted are harder and harder to come by these days, especially for renewals.

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The easy way to add a username and password pair in the .htpasswd file is to use an online password generator tool that converts the clear text password into its hash, a.k.a. the encrypted password. The problem with this approach is that you have to manually create the pair and append it to .htpasswd. Is there a way to dynamically generate encrypted passwords for .htpasswd in PHP?

According to, we have come up with the following solution:

$pass = 'YourClearTextPasswordString';
$hash = base64_encode(sha1($pass, true));
$encoded = '{SHA}'.$hash;
echo $encoded;

And $encoded is the result we need, which would look something like:


Suppose the username is ‘manager’ and you can add the following line at the end of your .htpasswd file to make the credentials in effect:


You can also write / append this to the file by PHP but that’s not covered here.

What’s better, the SHA1 algorithm is much more advanced than DES which most of the online .htpasswd generation tool still uses to generate the hash string of the clear password for you. DES supports only 8 digits and that’s where lengthy passwords fail.

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