Categories
Free PHP Classes & Library

PHP Class: Convert Plural to Singular or Vice Versa in English

I was trying to find a PHP function or class that can convert English words / nouns in plural form into their singular form so that wordcrow.com automatically detects and redirects plural lookup to the singular page. After a while searching on Google, I found this class.

This great class (Inflector) was ported from Ruby on Rails to PHP in the Akelos Framework by Akelos Media, S.L. http://www.akelos.com/.

List of Functions

Other than pluralize and singularize, this class has some more functions to convert text strings by certain standards. List below are all the functions this class has:

  • Inflector::pluralize – return the plural form of the given English word, e.g. “search” to “searches”.
  • Inflector::singularize – return the singular form of the given English word, e.g. “searches” to “search”.
  • Inflector::titleize – create a title text from the given string, e.g. “WelcomePage”, “welcome_page” or “welcome page” to “Welcome Page”.
  • Inflector::camelize – return the CamelCased text from the given string, e.g. “send_email” to “SendEmail”, “who’s online” to “WhoSOnline”.
  • Inflector::underscore – return a underscored text from the given string, e.g. “CamelCased” or “ordinary Word” to “underscored_word” that is lowercased.
  • Inflector::humanize – return a human-readable text from the given string, e.g., by replacing underscores with spaces, and by upper-casing the initial character by default.
  • Inflector::variablize – same as camelize but first char is underscored.
  • Inflector::tableize – converts a class name to its table name by rails naming conventions.
  • Inflector::classify – converts a table name to its class name by rails naming conventions.
  • Inflector::ordinalize – converts a natural number to its ordinal form in English, e.g. “2” to “2nd”, “15” to “15th”, “31” to “31st”.

Inflector Class

<?php

/* vim: set expandtab tabstop=4 shiftwidth=4 softtabstop=4: */

// +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
// | Akelos PHP Application Framework                                     |
// +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
// | Copyright (c) 2002-2006, Akelos Media, S.L.  http://www.akelos.com/  |
// | Released under the GNU Lesser General Public License                 |
// +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
// | You should have received the following files along with this library |
// | - COPYRIGHT (Additional copyright notice)                            |
// | - DISCLAIMER (Disclaimer of warranty)                                |
// | - README (Important information regarding this library)              |
// +----------------------------------------------------------------------+

/**
* Inflector for pluralize and singularize English nouns.
*
* This Inflector is a port of Ruby on Rails Inflector.
*
* It can be really helpful for developers that want to
* create frameworks based on naming conventions rather than
* configurations.
*
* It was ported to PHP for the Akelos Framework, a
* multilingual Ruby on Rails like framework for PHP that will
* be launched soon.
*
* @author Bermi Ferrer Martinez 
* @copyright Copyright (c) 2002-2006, Akelos Media, S.L. http://www.akelos.org
* @license GNU Lesser General Public License 
* @since 0.1
* @version $Revision 0.1 $
*/
class Inflector
{
    // ------ CLASS METHODS ------ //

    // ---- Public methods ---- //

    // {{{ pluralize()

    /**
    * Pluralizes English nouns.
    *
    * @access public
    * @static
    * @param    string    $word    English noun to pluralize
    * @return string Plural noun
    */
    function pluralize($word)
    {
        $plural = array(
        '/(quiz)$/i' => '1zes',
        '/^(ox)$/i' => '1en',
        '/([m|l])ouse$/i' => '1ice',
        '/(matr|vert|ind)ix|ex$/i' => '1ices',
        '/(x|ch|ss|sh)$/i' => '1es',
        '/([^aeiouy]|qu)ies$/i' => '1y',
        '/([^aeiouy]|qu)y$/i' => '1ies',
        '/(hive)$/i' => '1s',
        '/(?:([^f])fe|([lr])f)$/i' => '12ves',
        '/sis$/i' => 'ses',
        '/([ti])um$/i' => '1a',
        '/(buffal|tomat)o$/i' => '1oes',
        '/(bu)s$/i' => '1ses',
        '/(alias|status)/i'=> '1es',
        '/(octop|vir)us$/i'=> '1i',
        '/(ax|test)is$/i'=> '1es',
        '/s$/i'=> 's',
        '/$/'=> 's');

        $uncountable = array('equipment', 'information', 'rice', 'money', 'species', 'series', 'fish', 'sheep');

        $irregular = array(
        'person' => 'people',
        'man' => 'men',
        'child' => 'children',
        'sex' => 'sexes',
        'move' => 'moves');

        $lowercased_word = strtolower($word);

        foreach ($uncountable as $_uncountable){
            if(substr($lowercased_word,(-1*strlen($_uncountable))) == $_uncountable){
                return $word;
            }
        }

        foreach ($irregular as $_plural=> $_singular){
            if (preg_match('/('.$_plural.')$/i', $word, $arr)) {
                return preg_replace('/('.$_plural.')$/i', substr($arr[0],0,1).substr($_singular,1), $word);
            }
        }

        foreach ($plural as $rule => $replacement) {
            if (preg_match($rule, $word)) {
                return preg_replace($rule, $replacement, $word);
            }
        }
        return false;

    }

    // }}}
    // {{{ singularize()

    /**
    * Singularizes English nouns.
    *
    * @access public
    * @static
    * @param    string    $word    English noun to singularize
    * @return string Singular noun.
    */
    function singularize($word)
    {
        $singular = array (
        '/(quiz)zes$/i' => '\1',
        '/(matr)ices$/i' => '\1ix',
        '/(vert|ind)ices$/i' => '\1ex',
        '/^(ox)en/i' => '\1',
        '/(alias|status)es$/i' => '\1',
        '/([octop|vir])i$/i' => '\1us',
        '/(cris|ax|test)es$/i' => '\1is',
        '/(shoe)s$/i' => '\1',
        '/(o)es$/i' => '\1',
        '/(bus)es$/i' => '\1',
        '/([m|l])ice$/i' => '\1ouse',
        '/(x|ch|ss|sh)es$/i' => '\1',
        '/(m)ovies$/i' => '\1ovie',
        '/(s)eries$/i' => '\1eries',
        '/([^aeiouy]|qu)ies$/i' => '\1y',
        '/([lr])ves$/i' => '\1f',
        '/(tive)s$/i' => '\1',
        '/(hive)s$/i' => '\1',
        '/([^f])ves$/i' => '\1fe',
        '/(^analy)ses$/i' => '\1sis',
        '/((a)naly|(b)a|(d)iagno|(p)arenthe|(p)rogno|(s)ynop|(t)he)ses$/i' => '\1\2sis',
        '/([ti])a$/i' => '\1um',
        '/(n)ews$/i' => '\1ews',
        '/s$/i' => '',
        );

        $uncountable = array('equipment', 'information', 'rice', 'money', 'species', 'series', 'fish', 'sheep');

        $irregular = array(
        'person' => 'people',
        'man' => 'men',
        'child' => 'children',
        'sex' => 'sexes',
        'move' => 'moves');

        $lowercased_word = strtolower($word);
        foreach ($uncountable as $_uncountable){
            if(substr($lowercased_word,(-1*strlen($_uncountable))) == $_uncountable){
                return $word;
            }
        }

        foreach ($irregular as $_plural=> $_singular){
            if (preg_match('/('.$_singular.')$/i', $word, $arr)) {
                return preg_replace('/('.$_singular.')$/i', substr($arr[0],0,1).substr($_plural,1), $word);
            }
        }

        foreach ($singular as $rule => $replacement) {
            if (preg_match($rule, $word)) {
                return preg_replace($rule, $replacement, $word);
            }
        }

        return $word;
    }

    // }}}
    // {{{ titleize()

    /**
    * Converts an underscored or CamelCase word into a English
    * sentence.
    *
    * The titleize function converts text like "WelcomePage",
    * "welcome_page" or  "welcome page" to this "Welcome
    * Page".
    * If second parameter is set to 'first' it will only
    * capitalize the first character of the title.
    *
    * @access public
    * @static
    * @param    string    $word    Word to format as tile
    * @param    string    $uppercase    If set to 'first' it will only uppercase the
    * first character. Otherwise it will uppercase all
    * the words in the title.
    * @return string Text formatted as title
    */
    function titleize($word, $uppercase = '')
    {
        $uppercase = $uppercase == 'first' ? 'ucfirst' : 'ucwords';
        return $uppercase(Inflector::humanize(Inflector::underscore($word)));
    }

    // }}}
    // {{{ camelize()

    /**
    * Returns given word as CamelCased
    *
    * Converts a word like "send_email" to "SendEmail". It
    * will remove non alphanumeric character from the word, so
    * "who's online" will be converted to "WhoSOnline"
    *
    * @access public
    * @static
    * @see variablize
    * @param    string    $word    Word to convert to camel case
    * @return string UpperCamelCasedWord
    */
    function camelize($word)
    {
        return str_replace(' ','',ucwords(preg_replace('/[^A-Z^a-z^0-9]+/',' ',$word)));
    }

    // }}}
    // {{{ underscore()

    /**
    * Converts a word "into_it_s_underscored_version"
    *
    * Convert any "CamelCased" or "ordinary Word" into an
    * "underscored_word".
    *
    * This can be really useful for creating friendly URLs.
    *
    * @access public
    * @static
    * @param    string    $word    Word to underscore
    * @return string Underscored word
    */
    function underscore($word)
    {
        return  strtolower(preg_replace('/[^A-Z^a-z^0-9]+/','_',
        preg_replace('/([a-zd])([A-Z])/','1_2',
        preg_replace('/([A-Z]+)([A-Z][a-z])/','1_2',$word))));
    }

    // }}}
    // {{{ humanize()

    /**
    * Returns a human-readable string from $word
    *
    * Returns a human-readable string from $word, by replacing
    * underscores with a space, and by upper-casing the initial
    * character by default.
    *
    * If you need to uppercase all the words you just have to
    * pass 'all' as a second parameter.
    *
    * @access public
    * @static
    * @param    string    $word    String to "humanize"
    * @param    string    $uppercase    If set to 'all' it will uppercase all the words
    * instead of just the first one.
    * @return string Human-readable word
    */
    function humanize($word, $uppercase = '')
    {
        $uppercase = $uppercase == 'all' ? 'ucwords' : 'ucfirst';
        return $uppercase(str_replace('_',' ',preg_replace('/_id$/', '',$word)));
    }

    // }}}
    // {{{ variablize()

    /**
    * Same as camelize but first char is underscored
    *
    * Converts a word like "send_email" to "sendEmail". It
    * will remove non alphanumeric character from the word, so
    * "who's online" will be converted to "whoSOnline"
    *
    * @access public
    * @static
    * @see camelize
    * @param    string    $word    Word to lowerCamelCase
    * @return string Returns a lowerCamelCasedWord
    */
    function variablize($word)
    {
        $word = Inflector::camelize($word);
        return strtolower($word[0]).substr($word,1);
    }

    // }}}
    // {{{ tableize()

    /**
    * Converts a class name to its table name according to rails
    * naming conventions.
    *
    * Converts "Person" to "people"
    *
    * @access public
    * @static
    * @see classify
    * @param    string    $class_name    Class name for getting related table_name.
    * @return string plural_table_name
    */
    function tableize($class_name)
    {
        return Inflector::pluralize(Inflector::underscore($class_name));
    }

    // }}}
    // {{{ classify()

    /**
    * Converts a table name to its class name according to rails
    * naming conventions.
    *
    * Converts "people" to "Person"
    *
    * @access public
    * @static
    * @see tableize
    * @param    string    $table_name    Table name for getting related ClassName.
    * @return string SingularClassName
    */
    function classify($table_name)
    {
        return Inflector::camelize(Inflector::singularize($table_name));
    }

    // }}}
    // {{{ ordinalize()

    /**
    * Converts number to its ordinal English form.
    *
    * This method converts 13 to 13th, 2 to 2nd ...
    *
    * @access public
    * @static
    * @param    integer    $number    Number to get its ordinal value
    * @return string Ordinal representation of given string.
    */
    function ordinalize($number)
    {
        if (in_array(($number % 100),range(11,13))){
            return $number.'th';
        }else{
            switch (($number % 10)) {
                case 1:
                return $number.'st';
                break;
                case 2:
                return $number.'nd';
                break;
                case 3:
                return $number.'rd';
                default:
                return $number.'th';
                break;
            }
        }
    }

    // }}}

}

?>

Usage Examples

/* Singular to plural / Plural to singular */

echo Inflector::pluralize('search'); // outputs searches
echo Inflector::singularize('cases'); // outputs case
echo Inflector::pluralize('query'); // outputs queries
echo Inflector::singularize('queries'); // outputs query
echo Inflector::pluralize('ability'); // outputs abilities
echo Inflector::singularize('abilities'); // outputs ability
echo Inflector::pluralize('analysis'); // outputs analyses
echo Inflector::singularize('analyses'); // outputs analysis
echo Inflector::pluralize('information'); // outputs information
echo Inflector::singularize('information'); // outputs information
echo Inflector::pluralize('mouse'); // outputs mice
echo Inflector::singularize('mice'); // outputs mouse

/* CamelCase to underscore / underscore to CamelCase */

echo Inflector::underscore('SpecialGuest'); // outputs special_guest
echo Inflector::camelize('special_guest'); // outputs SpecialGuest
echo Inflector::underscore('FreeBSD'); // outputs free_bsd
echo Inflector::camelize('free_bsd'); // outputs FreeBsd
echo Inflector::underscore('HTML'); // outputs html
echo Inflector::camelize('html'); // outputs Html

/* Underscore to "human-text" / "Human-text" to Underscore */

echo Inflector::humanize('employee_salary'); // outputs Employee salary
echo Inflector::underscore('Employee salary'); // outputs employee_salary

/* Examples of titleize() */

echo Inflector::titleize('ActiveRecord'); // outputs Active Record
echo Inflector::titleize('action web service'); // outputs Action Web Service

/* Examples of ordinalize() */

echo Inflector::ordinalize(1); // outputs 1st
echo Inflector::ordinalize(2); // outputs 2nd
echo Inflector::ordinalize(3); // outputs 3rd
echo Inflector::ordinalize(4); // outputs 4th
echo Inflector::ordinalize(5); // outputs 5th
echo Inflector::ordinalize(20); // outputs 20th
echo Inflector::ordinalize(21); // outputs 21st
Categories
Affiliate Programs

A few Amazon affiliate tips and my earnings of Mar. 2011

amazon affiliate earning stats screenshot I’ve been a happy Amazon affiliate for over a year now and the monthly revenues have been steadily climbing up ever since I started promoting their products galore. The most recent month, Mar. 2011 has ended up making me over $400 in commissions or advertising fees. Attached on the right is the screenshot. Considering I didn’t do much work, it’s really awesome to have a nice side income that’s gonna last for a while – which is the beauty of SEO! Once you done the hard work the right way, it’s gonna last for at least a few years and even grow by itself!

So I’ve got a few tips to share with you if you just started on Amazon to make money.

If you’ve got a blog:

These are tips for people who aren’t technically oriented but blog a lot.

  1. Don’t promote a product or widget on a site-wide level. My experience is it almost never works out. Go article level.
  2. Add a relevant product at the end of every blog post. It takes extra minutes for a post but it would definitely yield great results. Relevance is the key here. Find the most reviewed and best received product such as a book that carries the information relevant to your blog post. Find the product that best complements your post.
  3. Write articles in the mind of promoting one or more of the popular products at Amazon. Do not write to hype how good the product is, instead, write in your genuine tone to solve the readers’ or visitors’ problem and drop your Amazon affiliate links in-between the helpful words, naturally leading them to purchase the products.
  4. If you’ve used a product, write a genuine review! People love personal writings. Write a review and be personal. Then link to Amazon page under your affiliate ID.
  5. Target micro-niches and go long tail. The smallest product (in terms of price) would make you the most money. Most people who fail in Internet marketing fail to realize this. Small is big.

If you know how to build a website all by yourself:

These are tips for people who develop websites by themselves.

  1. Create a comparison shopping site / search engine that integrates a lot of different vendors. Visitors arrive on your page to compare the prices and terms of each vendor (including Amazon’s) and decide where to spend the money – by clicking your affiliate links. This is the mogul approach. It is great but you have to dedicate a lot of time and energy to make and maintain it. I built Dante Books off this ISBN database which is essentially a books directory site with limited price comparison. For now, it leads only to Amazon. 😉
  2. Add relevant products to your existing sites. For example, the traffic of a golf courses directory would be very much interested in the golf equipment.
  3. Create a review club of certain products. People can come to share their reviews. An online book club would be very fun to create and maintain!
  4. Create a rebate site. When customers order under your name and you earn 7% of the deal, give 3% rebate to the customer.

To make the most of Amazon Associate Program or any other affiliate programs:

Some general guidelines in making affiliate programs work.

  1. Use a clean, white design with minimum images unless it’s for the sale / conversion.
  2. Put content the first thing. Do NOT distract the readers from the content for any reason. Get rid of other ads. Less is more.
  3. Blend your affiliate links in the content as if it’s a very helpful and indispensable resource to compensate your point.
  4. Write the content within 2-minutes reading time’s length. Use at least one list, ordered or unordered, in each article. Plant at least one affiliate link in the list.

There could be more, but I’ve got to find something to eat now.